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Music listening is defined as the active attention to auditory stimuli by the patient.
Guided Music Listening: Used to facilitate on-task behavior and increase attention, or help patients to explore unconscious material.
Iso Principle: Continuous music played live to elevate or reduce such mood or level of stimulation in the listener, beginning at a level that mirrors that of the patient, and concluding at a desired level of stimulation, as determined by the therapist.
Music and Imagery Visualization: Individuals listen to an orchestral excerpt, i.e., Aaron Copeland's “Hodown," Night On Bald Mountain, Scheherezad, or Vivaldi's “The Four Seasons," then draw or write a destription of what they visualized during the music listening.
Pain Management: Music is an enjoyable stimulus to either focus or distract an individual from pain, or to mask undesirable environmental sounds (Tague, 2007).
Personal Music Sharing: Patients bring their own music or select from the internet library or a music library to share, which promotes positive memories, self-concept, the release of emotions, and self-expression, and through a wholesome shared experience and the divergent socialization, also permits the group to respond with support, empathy, and encouragement (Jones, 2012).
Dijkstra, I. & Hakvoort, L. (2004). How to deal music? Enhancing coping strategies in music therapy with clients suffering from addiction problems. Music Therapy Today (online) Vol. V (5), Nov. available at:http://musictherapytoday.net
Tague, Daniel. (December 79, 2007). Pain - Forget About It! Using Music Effectively to Manage Pain. [Web log comment] Retrieved from http://musicmakessense.blogspot.com/2007/12/ pain-forget-about-it-using-music.html
James E. Riley, MT-BC